Year: 1995

Photoluminescence measurements on phosphorus implanted silicon: Annealing kinetics of defects
Othonos A, Christofides C

Journal of Applied Physics, DOI: 10.1063/1.360337Download
Room‐temperature photoluminescence measurements are performed in order to study the effect of thermal annealing on phosphorus implanted silicon wafers. Measurements are carried out at near band gap excitation with a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1.06 μm. Photoluminescence measurements are also carried out with 0.488 μm laser excitation. It was found that implantation conditions (dose and energy) and annealing temperature strongly influence the intensity of the photoluminescence signal. Contribution from the bulk silicon and the effects from the ion implantation to the photoluminescence signal are discussed.

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Novel and improved methods of writing Bragg gratings with phase masks
Othonos A, Lee X

Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE, DOI: 10.1109/68.466584Download
The authors demonstrate the importance of spatial coherence of the writing beam for inscribing Bragg gratings with a phase mask. Bragg gratings were written using a normal excimer laser with the fiber placed at various distances away from the phase mask. This was repeated with an excimer laser that was modified to improve the beam spatial coherence showing dramatic improvement in the ability to inscribe gratings. Tunability of the inscribed Bragg grating wavelength, utilizing a single phase mask in conjunction with the improved spatial coherence of the excitation source, is demonstrated

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Narrow linewidth excimer laser for inscribing Bragg gratings in optical fibers
Othonos A, Lee X

Review of Scientific Instruments, DOI: 10.1063/1.1145538Download
A spectrally narrow linewidth KrF excimer laser has been developed for the application of writing Bragg gratings in optical fibers. Two air spaced etalons 80 and 6 cm−1 have been incorporated within the laser cavity resulting in a laser line with a linewidth of approximately 4 pm. A stable wavelength setting for writing Bragg gratings has been achieved without the necessity of a feedback mechanism. A study of the formation of Bragg grating in optical fibers with this narrow linewidth KrF excimer laser has been carried out. High quality gratings have been demonstrated in hydrogen sensitized fibers with a pulse energy density as low as 20 mJ/cm2. Limitations and various problems encountered in inscribing Bragg gratings (such as two simultaneous grating lines) with the narrow linewidth excimer laser source are also discussed.

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Determining erbium distribution in optical fibers using phase-sensitive confocal microscopy
Othonos A, Wheeldon J, Hubert M

Optical Engineering, DOI: 10.1117/12.215512Download
Confocal optical microscopy augmented by the phasesensitive detection technique has been used to determine the erbium ion distribution in the core of single-mode optical fibers. The fluorescence at 565 nm generated by erbium ions under 488 nm excitation has been used to map the distribution of these ions in several doped fibers and the total ion concentration was estimated. The minimum concentration of erbium ions that can be measured using this technique is estimated to be of the order of a part per million.

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High-Resolution Quadrature Photopyroelectric Spectroscopy of a-Si:H Thin Films Deposited on Silicon Wafers
Shen J, Mandelis A, Othonos A, Vanniasinkam J

Appl. Spectrosc., DOI: Download
The recently developed photothermal technique of quadrature photopyroelectric spectroscopy (Q-PPES) has been applied to measurements of amorphous Si thin films deposited on crystalline Si substrates. Direct, meaningful comparisons have been made between purely optical transmission in-phase (IP-PPES) spectra, and purely thermal-wave sub-gap spectra with the use of a novel noncontacting PPES instrument to record lock-in in-phase and quadrature spectra, respectively. FT-IR transmission spectra have also been obtained for a comparison with this IP-PPES optical method. The results of the present work showed that the FT-IR method performs the worst in terms of spectral resolution of thin films and sub-bandgap defect/impurity absorptions inherent in the Si wafer substrate. The optical IP-PPES channel, however, albeit more sensitive than the FT-IR technique, fails to resolve spectra from surface films thinner than 2100 Å, but is sensitive to sub-bandgap absorptions. The thermal-wave Q-PPES channel is capable of resolving thin-film spectra well below 500 Å thick and exhibits strong signal levels from the crystalline Si sub-bandgap absorptions. Depending on the surface thin-film orientation toward, or away from, the direction of the incident radiation, the estimated minimum mean film thickness resolvable spectroscopically by Q-PPES is either 40 Å or 100 Å, respectively.

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Year: 1994

Large ultrafast optical nonlinearities in As-rich GaAs
Benjamin SD, Othonos A, Smith PW

Electronics Letters, DOI: 10.1049/el:19941154Download
The measurement of large ultrafast bandgap-resonant optical nonlinearities in As-rich samples of GaAs that have been grown at low temperatures is reported. Light-induced refractive index changes of magnitude greater than 0.1 and with picosecond response times have been observed. These materials appear to be promising candidates for the fabrication of compact, ultrafast all- optical devices

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Optical spectroscopy on implanted and annealed silicon wafers: Plasma resonance wavelength
Christofides C, Othonos A, Bisson M, Boussey-Said J

Journal of Applied Physics, DOI: 10.1063/1.356097Download
A study of the effects of annealing temperature on phosphorus‐implanted silicon films is carried out. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has been performed with two different instruments in the spectral ranges of 0.75–4 μm and 3–25 μm. In the first spectrum range special attention was given to the influence of implantation dose on reflectivity. The minimum reflectivity associated with plasma resonance has been fully employed for estimation of the electrical activation of implanted impurities. Other conclusions concerning the activation of free carriers (implanted impurities) with implantation dose and annealing temperature have been reached

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Raman spectroscopy and spreading resistance analysis of phosphorus implanted and annealed silicon
Othonos A, Christofides C, Boussey-Said J, Bisson M

Journal of Applied Physics, DOI: 10.1063/1.356543Download
Raman and electrical characterization measurements are performed in order to study the effects of thermal annealing on phosphorus implanted silicon wafers. The silicon layers were implanted for various implantation energies and doses, below, and over the critical dose of amorphization. The post‐implanted period was followed by thermal isochronal annealing at various temperatures. Special attention has been given to the amorphous/crystal transition occurring at various annealing temperatures. A bi layer model [R. Loudon, J. Phys. (Paris) 26, 677 (1965)] has been used for a quantitative determination of the annealing temperature at which a complete annihilation of implantation defects takes place. For this analysis, Raman spectra, resistivity depth profiles, as well as 1D‐SUPREM III simulation were used.

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Superimposed multiple Bragg gratings
Othonos A, Lee X, Measures RM

Electronics Letters, DOI: 10.1049/el:19941359Download
The authors demonstrate the inscription of seven Bragg gratings at the same location on a photosensitive fibre. These superimposed Bragg gratings were written over a 60 nm span in the region of 1530 nm with reflectivities better than 45%. Effects due to the inscription of multiple gratings within the same location on the fibre such as wavelength shifting and linewidth narrowing are studied.

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Raman spectroscopy using a fiber optic probe with subwavelength aperture
Tsai DP, Othonos A, Moskovits M, Uttamchandani D

Applied Physics Letters, DOI: 10.1063/1.111802Download
Raman spectroscopy with subwavelength spatial resolution of a diamond sample was recorded using a tapered fiber optical probe in conjunction with a conventional Raman spectrometer. The experiment demonstrates the potential of suboptical wavelength resolution analytical spectroscopy. The tapered fiber optical probe with an aperture of around 100 nm, served as the means for delivering pump radiation while simultaneously collecting the Stokes radiation from the diamond specimen. Comparing the magnitude of the Raman scattering measured with the submicron single mode fiber probe to similar signals obtained with a nontapered probe made of the same type of fiber, illustrates the potential increase in effective optical aperture resulting from the close approach of the fiber to the surface.

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Determination of erbium distribution in optical fibers using confocal optical microscopy
Uttamchandani D, Othonos A, Alavie AT, Hubert M

Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE, DOI: 10.1109/68.275511Download
Confocal fluorescence microscopy has been used to detect the 565 nm wavelength fluorescence generated from Er+3 ions present in erbium doped optical fibers, thereby enabling the concentration profile of these ions in the fiber core to be determined. The fluorescence intensity distribution also enables the total Er+3 ion concentration in the fibers to be estimated, and the estimated values are shown to be in good agreement with data supplied by the fiber manufacturers

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Year: 1993

A Multiplexed Bragg Grating Fiber Laser Sensor System
Alavie AT, Karr SE, Othonos A, Measures RM

Photonics Technology Letters, DOI: 10.1109/68.257209Download
A technique for multiplexing Bragg gratings in a fiber laser arrangement is described. This technique has successfully been used to multiplex two and three Bragg gratings with very little crosstalk. The Bragg grating laser sensors were used to measure both strain and temperature. Independent strain and temperature tuning of the gratings shows no crosstalk

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Spectroscopy and analysis of radiative and nonradiative processes in Ti 3+:Al22O3 crystals
Grinberg M, Mandelis A, Fjeldsted K, Othonos A

Phys. Rev. B, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.48.5922Download
Experimental spectroscopic and time-resolved luminescence measurements of the Ti3+:Al2O3 crystalline system have been performed. The absorption and fluorescence spectra obtained have led to a reconsideration of prevailing theoretical models for the radiative relaxation process in Ti:sapphire crystals. A realistic, two-dimensional configuration-coordinate space model has been constructed to describe the Jahn-Teller distortion of the system. Consideration of the nonlinear contributions to the electron-lattice coupling potential was found to contribute little to the second luminescence emission maximum, thus indicating that the electron-phonon interaction is essentially linear in the ground state. The main effect of the nonlinearity was found to be in the value of the nonradiative activation energy. The spin-orbit coupling was also incorporated in the model and was shown to be responsible for the nonradiative transitions in Ti3+:Al2O3, while the phonon structure of the ground (2T2) state of the system results from both spin-orbit and nonlinear coupling with the lattice.

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Single-ended infrared photothermal radiometric measurement of quantum efficiency and metastable lifetime in solid-state laser materials: The case of ruby (Cr3+:Al2O3)
Mandelis A, Munidasa M, Othonos A

IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, , DOI: Download
A simple, self-consistent frequency-scanned photothermal radiometric (PTR) detection scheme was applied to the measurement of the metastable state de-excitation parameters of a ruby laser rod. The radiative quantum efficiency and lifetime in this material were calculated from the extrema of the photothermal phase and the amplitude slope versus the excitation laser beam modulation frequency curves, without recourse to the conventional second measurement to eliminate effects of photothermal saturation. This technique simplifies significantly the experimental methodology, guarantees uniqueness of the measured quantities, and increases the measurement range of lifetimes as compared to other photothermal-based methods. Therefore, it may prove valuable for fast industrial quality control, as well as for fundamental studies of laser materials

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Absolute nonradiative energy-conversion-efficiency spectra in Ti3+Al2O3 crystals measured by noncontact quadrature photopyroelectric spectroscopy
Mandelis A, Vanniasinkam J, Budhudu S, Othonos A, Kokta M

Phys. Rev. B, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.48.6808Download
Photopyroelectric spectroscopy (PPES) was used in a noncontact experimental configuration to obtain high-resolution absolute spectra of the optical-to-thermal energy-conversion efficiency (nonradiative coefficient), ηNR(λ), of Ti:sapphire laser crystals with widely different figures of merit. Optical-absorption-coefficient β(λ) spectra were obtained from the PPES signal in the purely optical transmission mode. These were subsequently used self-consistently in a theoretical model along with PPES-signal quadrature spectra (purely thermal transmission mode) to extract ηNR(λ) spectra. These spectra were found to depend on the optical quality of the bulk and of the polished surfaces of the Ti:sapphire material. Therefore, they can be used for fundamental energy-conversion studies of the excited-state deexcitation manifold, as well as for establishing a practical monitoring criterion of crystal growth and processing quality in Ti3+:Al2O3.

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Fiber Bragg grating laser sensor
Othonos A, Alavie AT, Melle S, Karr SE, Measures RM

Optical Engineering, DOI: 10.1117/12.147704Download
An erbium-doped fiber laser utilizing a broadband mirror as the end reflector and an intracore Bragg grating as the output coupler is designed and developed. This arrangement is used as a laser sensor to improve interrogation efficiency of intracore Bragg gratings over broadband sensor interrogation methods. Wavelength tuning of the fiber laser has been achieved by varying the temperature and strain on the Bragg grating, demonstrating an improved SNR with respect to the previous techniques that use broadband interrogation of the Bragg grating sensor.

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Year: 1992

Free carrier and lattice-heating-induced changes to the reflectivity of epitaxial GeSi alloys following picosecond pulse excitation
Othonos A, Van Driel HM, Young JF, Baribeau J-

Solid State Communications, DOI: DOI: 10.1016/0038-1098(92)90361-CDownload
Transient reflectivity characteristics for epitaxial Ge1-xSix (x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25) alloys have been measured at [lambda] = 0.575[mu]m, using 2ps pump and probe pulses with photogenerated carrier densities up to 1019 cm-3. For all x we are able to separately determine negative (free carrier) and positive (lattice heating) contributions to the reflectivity change; the relative contributions of the latter are found to increase with increasing x. The evolution of the free carrier part is dominated by carrier-temperature-dependent diffusion.

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Year: 1991

Correlation of hot-phonon and hot-carrier kinetics in Ge on a picosecond time scale
Othonos A, Van Driel HM, Young JF, Kelly PJ

Phys. Rev. B, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.43.6682Download
We report room-temperature measurements of time-resolved reflectivity from intrinsic crystalline Ge induced and probed by λ=0.575 μm, 2-ps pulses and for photogenerated carrier densities up to ∼1019 cm-3. These data are used together with our earlier picosecond-time-resolved Raman-scattering data at 77 and 300 K to self-consistently determine transient nonequilibrium carrier and phonon effects. The combined data sets are modeled with a Boltzmann transport description of coupled electron and phonon kinetics to understand the temporal and spatial evolution of carrier density and temperature and the generation and decay of Raman-active phonons. Using known material parameters in the model, we can account for the magnitude and temporal evolution of the electron, hole, and phonon thermodynamic parameters. In particular, the model accounts for the relative delay between the peak of the pulse and the nonequilibrium phonon population, the number of nonequilibrium phonons generated, and the initially rapid diffusion of hot carriers away from the sample surface on a 5-ps time scale.

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Non-Equilibrium Phonon Dynamics in Ge and GeSi Alloys
Young JG, Lockwood DJ, Baribeau JM, Kelly PJ, Othonos A, Driel HM

Light Scattering in Semiconductor Structures and Superlattices, DOI: Download
The ability of the Raman scattering technique to coherently probe specific excitation modes in a semiconductor,providing both spectral and thermodynamics information, makes it a powerful tool for time-resolving relaxation processes.

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Year: 1989

Fluorescence studies of multiple-photon ionization processes: Four- and five-photon ionization of Sr at wavelengths of 558--590 nm
Haugen HK, Othonos AS

Phys. Rev. A, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.39.3392Download
An ‘‘all-optical’’ technique is presented for the study of multiphoton-ionization processes, based on fluorescence detection of the ions which are produced. A vapor is utilized in a moderate-density regime (∼1011–1015 cm-3) such that collisional effects are negligible. The technique is applied to multiple-photon ionization of Sr in the wavelength range of 558–590 nm at laser intensities ∼1–50 GW/cm2. Fine-structure-resolved emission of the Sr+ (5p2P3/2/,1/d0) ions which are formed is observed at λ=407.8 and 421.5 nm, following either four- or five-photon absorption. No emission is observed from higher ionic states, with a detection sensitivity ∼1:103 with respect to the ionic-resonance emission

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Hot-carrier dynamics in Ge on single picosecond timescales: Comparing Raman and reflectivity experiments with a self-consistent kinetic model
Othonos A, Van Driel H, Young JF, Kelly PJ

Solid-State Electronics, DOI: DOI: 10.1016/0038-1101(89)90276-1Download
Through comparisons of picosecond Raman and transient reflection experiments with a comprehensive kinetic model of photo-excited carrier and lattice dynamics in Ge, we demonstrate the ability of these techniques to probe subtle aspects of non-equilibrium carrier dynamics in group IV materials at moderate injected carrier densities. Using material parameters taken from the literature, the temporal evolution of the non-equilibrium optical phonon population generated by the relaxation of photo-excited electrons and holes is obtained by solving a coupled set of Boltzmann equations for the electron and hole particle and thermal currents. The results of the calculation agree, in absolute terms, with the experimentally observed evolution of the non-equilibrium optical phonon population. The calculation also predicts that the hot plasma initially diffuses rapidly away from the sample surface, on a 5 picosecond timescale, and subsequently diffuses much slower as the carrier temperature decays to the lattice temperature, and the density gradient diminishes due to the hot carriers which have already migrated into the material. This prediction is verified by comparison of the calculated change in reflectivity due to the plasma, and picosecond reflectivity measurements performed at room temperature with 575 nm pulses.

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Year: 1988

Fluorescence studies of multiphoton ionization of Sr: Production of excited ionic states
Haugen HK, Othonos A

Phys. Rev. A, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.38.6448Download
fine-structure sublevels in the singly charged ion are fully resolved and are found to be nonstatistically populated. Four- and five- (or more) photon processes are observed to populate Sr+(5p2P) in the intensity regime of I∼1-50 GW/cm2, but no emission is detected from higher-lying states of Sr+.

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