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High-Temperature Pb Doping of SnO₂ and Growth Limitations of PbₓSn₁–ₓO₂ Nanowires Versus Low-Temperature Growth of PbₓSn₁–ₓO for Energy Storage and Conversion
Authors: Matthew Zervos; Andreas Othonos; Eugenia Tanasă
Year: 2019
Research Area: Ultrafast Spectroscopy
Type of Publication: Article
Journal Details
Journal: Journal of physical chemistry
Volume: v. 123
Number: no. 26
Pages: pp. 16415-16423-201
Keywords: crystal structure
Pb doping of SnO₂ nanowires grown by the vapor–liquid–solid mechanism on 1 nm Au/Si has been investigated between 500 and 1000 °C via the reaction of Sn-containing Pb with O₂ at 10–¹ mbar. The SnO₂ nanowires have diameters of 50 nm, lengths up to 100 μm, and a tetragonal rutile crystal structure, but they do not contain Pb because of its significant depletion during the temperature ramp and re-evaporation from the surface of the SnO₂ nanowires. Consequently, we do not observe a semiconductor to semimetal transition and band gap narrowing. Instead, the Pb reacts with O₂, leading to the deposition of PbO directly on Si but not on the SnO₂ nanowires, which have carrier densities of ≈10¹⁶ cm–³. Furthermore, one-dimensional growth was completely suppressed by increasing the amount of Pb in Sn. As such, Pb doping of SnO₂ and the growth of PbₓSn₁–ₓO₂ nanowires is difficult, if not impossible, because PbO₂ nanowires cannot be grown by the vapor–liquid–solid mechanism irrespective of the growth temperature. In contrast, we find that the composition of PbₓSn₁–ₓO nanostructures may be tuned over a broad range by low-temperature growth at 400 °C. We discuss the properties and prospects of this ternary oxide for energy conversion and storage.
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